Knowledge of infectious disease epidemiology is essential to clinical trial planning, as this information is needed to identify for which populations a vaccine or treatment will be most effective. This knowledge includes analysis of demographic, geographic, social, seasonal and other risk factors. When combined with situational awareness of local site capacity, clinical operations and other site-specific enrollment indicators, an understanding of the epidemiology can help determine site locations and strategies for optimal participant engagement.
Given globalization, infectious diseases are spreading further and faster, making epidemiology more challenging, yet ever more important, to track. Throughout a trial, information from monitoring the changing epidemiology of an infectious disease guides appropriate adjustments to site selection, recruitment and data analysis.
Emerging diseases require agile responses.
Outbreaks have ripple effects on other infectious diseases.
Diligent surveillance is crucial to endemic disease control.
Multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of common pathogens are also the cause of dynamic epidemiology in many parts of the world. MDR-TB is a current concern, with increasing prevalence and poorer treatment outcomes with existing first-line treatments, while second-line treatments are limited, often toxic and expensive.16,17
Robust surveillance data are vital to appropriately plan clinical trials for infectious disease vaccines and therapies.
To take advantage of this localized knowledge, we’ve developed and applied a unique method of site feasibility involving biosurveillance methodologies and epidemiological evaluation, which allows us to proactively assess sites and anticipate changes in epidemiology that should be considered in the study design. To hear more, watch our plenary presentation from the 6th Global Forum on TB Vaccines.
- Hu B, Guo H, Zhou P, et al. Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19. Nat Rev Microbiol 2021;19:141-154. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-020-00459-7
- Baker RE, Mahmud AS, Miller IF,. et al. Infectious disease in an era of global change. Nat Rev Microbiol 2022;20:193-205. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41579-021-00639-z
- Bergen I, Whelan M, Ware H, et al. Global epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of standardized population-based seroprevalence studies, Jan 2020-Dec 2021.medRxiv 2021.https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.12.14.21267791
- Amar S, Avni YS, O’Rourke N, et al. Prevalence of Common Infectious Diseases After COVID-19 Vaccination and Easing of Pandemic Restrictions in Israel. JAMA Netw Open 2022;5(2):e2146175. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.46175
- Ullrich A, Schranz M, Rexroth U, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated non-pharmaceutical interventions on other notifiable infectious diseases in Germany: An analysis of national surveillance data during week 1–2016 – week 32–2020. The Lancet Regional Health – Europe 2021;6:100103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2021.100103
- Van Brusselen D, De Troeyer K, Ter Haar E, et al. Bronchiolitis in COVID-19 times: a nearly absent disease? Eur J Pediatr. 2021;180(6):1969–1973.
- Yeoh DK, Foley DA, Minney-Smith CA, et al. Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 public health measures on detections of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in children during the 2020 Australian winter. Clin Infect Dis. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa1475
- Li H, Ling F, Zhang S, et al. Comparison of 19 major infectious diseases during COVID-19 epidemic and previous years in Zhejiang, implications for prevention measures. BMC Infect Dis 2022;22:296. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-022-07301-w
- Oh DY, Buda S, Biere B, et al. Trends in respiratory virus circulation following COVID-19-targeted nonpharmaceutical interventions in Germany, January – September 2020: Analysis of national surveillance data. The Lancet Regional Health – Europe. 2021;6:100112.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lanepe.2021.100112.
- Foley DA, Yeoh DK, Minney-Smith CA, et al. The Interseasonal Resurgence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Australian Children Following the Reduction of Coronavirus Disease 2019–Related Public Health Measures, Clinical Infectious Diseases 2021;73(9):e2829-e2830. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1906
- Agha R, Avner JR. Delayed seasonal RSV surge observed during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pediatrics 2021;148(3):e2021052089. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2021-052089
- Zeru M A. Prevalence and associated factors of HIV-TB co-infection among HIV patients: a retrospective Study. African health sciences 2021;21(3):1003-1009. https://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v21i3.7
- Obebe OO, Falohun OO. Epidemiology of malaria among HIV/AIDS patients in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Acta Trop 2021;215:105798. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105798.
- Chang CC, Crane M, Zhou J, et al. HIV and co-infections. Immunological Reviews 2013;254(1):114-142. https://doi.org/10.1111/imr.12063
- WHO consolidated guidelines on tuberculosis: module 1: prevention: tuberculosis preventive treatment. March 24, 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240001503. Accessed on May 25, 2022.
- Tuberculosis. World Health Organization. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tuberculosis. Accessed on May 25, 2022.
- Knight G, McQuaid CF, Dodd PJ, et al. Global burden of latent multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: trends and estimates based on mathematical modelling. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 2019;19(8):903-912. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(19)30307-X