Claudia Christian: Titers vary significantly by patient population, age and critically ill versus moderately ill. The only data I've found was about approximately 173 hospitalized patients in China — of which 30 percent didn't generate any antibodies at all, and 50 percent generated extremely high antibodies. The government-funded ACTT program has enrolled more than 1,000 patients and has provided some initial global data about neutralizing antibodies. I think we will continuously add to the dataset and achieve better normals or better averages. But physicians are saying that it may also be wildly different all the time, and it may be that we can't make any decisions on treatment based on that.
Dr. Michelle Berrey: During the Ebola outbreak, we asked patients who had recovered to donate convalescent sera so we could utilize the neutralizing antibodies in their sera to possibly help others. Of course, the effectiveness depends on how far along in the disease process patients are. Convalescent sera helps to reduce the viral load if that is what is causing most of the symptoms. If the patient has transitioned into a robust immune/cytokine storm, the convalescent sera may not be as helpful. Some of the new therapeutics start with data from recovered patients. It looks at their effective antibodies, both for vaccines and for potentially monoclonal antibodies as well. The scientific community is doing a great job at sharing information.